Friday, 7 June 2019

Six Limbs of India Art or Shadang of Indian Art

Six Limbs of India Art or Shadang of Indian Art
Limbs of Indian Painting or Shadanga

The sixth limbs or the theory of Indian painting is first mentioned in the Kamasutra of Vatsyayana, which was composed in B.C. 600-200. Further, it was criticized by Yashodhar Pandit, resident of Jaipur in the 11th century and presented the theory of these ancient painting in one verse:
Roopbheda: Pramanani, Bhav, Lavanya Yojnaam,
Sadrashya, Varnika Bhang, Iti Chitra Shadangakam.
According to this stanza, the six limbs or theories of the painting are as follows: -
1. Form,
2. Proportion,
3. Expression,
4. Gracefulness in Composition,
5. Simulation,
6. Color Composition


 Form means different types of forms or shape. The secrets and differences of the forms-living and dead, different angles, round, oval with many colors, hard, soft, rough smooth, etc. There are 16 types of forms in the Mahabharata's Shanti-Parva. But these are the external (physical) types of forms. There are mysterious distinctions of the form in which an artist should be an expert. Only with torn clothes, it cannot be shown that this lady is a maid, not a poor beloved. In Vishnu-dharmottara Purana, four types of pictures have been described:
  •         Truth
  •          Venic
  •          Nagar
  •          Mishra
 In this theory, according to the appropriate ratio of organs, the body composition has been described by these ratios. Indian scholars have mentioned five types of forms and have given their measurement as follows:
Baal (Boy): Five Taal, like - Gopal
Kumar: Eight Taal, like Waman
Human: Ten Taal, such as Arjun, Pandava, Ram, Krishna
Horrible: Twelve Taal, like - Bhairav, Heyagri, twelve
Monsters: Sixteen Taal, like Ravana, Kumbkar
Here the word Taal is used as unit for measurement. Apart from this, Angul(Finger) proportion is also considered or used. This is a simple fact of Proportion. But the use of these measurements depend on the artist. The artist should also measure it repeatedly from his Rational Power.


The main purpose of composing any painting is an emotional attachment. These two things are basically the same. Any emotional attachments or sudden feeling occurs in mind after watching any paintings is called feeling. An expression is the soul of a picture which has two following base:
·         Expression of the painter whom he wishes to show in the picture
·         The expressions which occur in the heart of the viewer by watching  the picture
We can see the expressions through the eyes in the picture, but some feelings are not concerned only with the eyes and mouth. Artist Experience is required for those expressions to show. Other techniques or remedies have to be used to show the feeling.

Gracefulness in Composition (Lavanya Yojnam)

Gracefulness in Composition is an important principle of painting. According to this, the image or artwork should be the elegance or grace along with the expression. The way the proportion gives the direction, Lavanya Yojnam makes it more excellent. The expression denotes an inner sense of beauty while Lavanya Yojnam is a symbol of external beauty. If there is any shortfall after emotion, form, proportion, sometimes it can be fulfilled by applying it.

Simulation (saradshya)

To copy is called Simulation or Sadrashya. In Indian painting, Sadrshya is considered as the main Vaastu:

"Chitre saradshya-karanam pradhan parikirtatam"Chitra sutra

That is, it is not possible to just copy empty words and to get the reflection. The sense of this theory here means that reflection in which the objects related to the painted architectural or subject matter is also important. For example, if you want to visualize the river, it is considered to depict fish, turtle, grasshopper, lotus, and trees and birds.
Indian art has been discovered in human nature in the natural abstracts which are as follows: -
Eye: Lotus Leaf, Lotus Bud, like Deer, like a Bird or Fish Like
Ears: Like the wings of a vulture,
Nose: Like sesame flowers or parrots,
Nostrils: Like beans,
Lip: Like the flowering of the beans or beans,
Soles: Like Neem leaves or bow,
Fingers of hands: Like beans of beans or Chamba buds,
Male waist: Like a lion,
Woman's waist: Like Damru,
Thighs: Like the elephant trunk,

Color Composition

 The color composition tells us the perfect and suitable use of color and its mixing and also the use of coloring tools. Under this principle, an attempt has been made to explain where and how the color is to be filled by a color Tulika (brush). The above five Limbs are useless or do not have any sense if an artist doesn’t know about this theory of color combination. Therefore, the painter should have knowledge of Varnika-Bhang (Color Combination) and should take full care while depicting it. Therefore it is very necessary for a painter to control the tulika (brush).
So in this way, an attempt has been made to recite six Siddhantas (Principles) of Indian painting. Art lovers should take care of them when they make pictures. These are no definite rules, neither an artist should follow any certain rules. Even though considering art as a spiritual practice in Indian culture, these principles are presented just like guidance. Ultimately, all artists should continue to carry out efforts and practice regularly to develop his art.
Also watch it on my you tube channel.

Sunday, 26 May 2019

Pal Art or Pal School Of Art

Pal Style of Art/ Pal school of Art

Pal School of Art


This style developed between 500 to 1300 AD under the patronage of the then Pal and Sena dynasty kings of Bihar and Bengal. Pal style evolved in 5 forms- architecture, sculpture, terracotta, painting and mural paintings. This art was influenced by Hindu and mainly by Buddhism. In this style, the pictures evolved from two types - 1. Mural paintings, 2. Manuscript. This art was extended to Bihar, Bengal as well as Nepal.

Historic background

After the reign of King Harsh of Bengal, the rule of that system remained chaotic for almost 100 years. As a result, in 730- 740 AD, the people of it rebelled. After that, the people of Bengal chose a person named Gopal as their king. King Gopal had established his kingdom to south Bihar. King Gopal was the first ruler of the Pala dynasty.
After Raja Gopal, his son Dharmapala became the king who established Vikramshila University in Bhagalpur. Painting began with the state of Raja Dharmapala.
After King Dharmapala, his son Devpal became the king who expanded the state. After Devpal, his son Mahipal became the king. King Mahipal's time is considered to be the best for the Pal Style. All these Kings were the followers of Lord Buddha.

Pal Pothis Or Manuscripts

Pala style pictures are found in the pavilions of the Mahayana sect wrote in Bengal, Bihar, and Nepal, which have been depicted on both sides of the tracks.
These pothis have been written on good quality green leaves, which have wooden backs on both sides. The size of these papers is 22.25 "X 2.5".
On these letters, Devanagari script is written in letters on both sides beautifully. In the middle, the pictures of Mahayana Deities, Buddha characters, and Divine Buddha are painted on square space.
Tibetan historian Lama Taranath has considered Dhiman and the Vittapal as the founder of Pal style or painting. Some people say Dhiman and Vittapal were the chief artists of this genre too.

Found Pothies

In the illustrated Pal Pothis, Prajnaparamita, Mantamala, Panchashikha, Gandhavih, and Karandevguha Mahayana Bodhi Pothi have been found.
Some painted papers are still preserved in the Cambridge University Library.

Pal Style Features

  • Pictures of this genre have been found in the panties, which are small in size
  • In this style, gentle and carnivorous shapes have been made in Ajanta tradition. Lines and expressions are also the same. Occasionally the horrific shapes of the Mahayana sect have also been painted.
  • The paranoid style of Ajanta style can be seen in Pal style. The style of the Bhitth (Mural) paintings have been diminished in which the shapes appear to be limited.
  • Human figures have long noses, which are going beyond the cheek borders and the eyes have been made large and nearby. The heads of the shapes are flat.
  • The boundary lines of the shapes have been made and it appears that the nib or some hard textbook has been used in place of the tulika(Brush).
  • In this genre, the green leaves of good quality have been used in the potholes by drying in the shade and wood pots were used on both sides of the potholes.
  • These paintings are mainly used in red, blue, white and black colors as well as pink, purple and gray colors made from basic colors.


Pal style is primarily the style of illustrated pothis or manuscripts that were influenced by Buddhism. It was also extended in Bihar, Bengal, and Nepal, which had the protection of Pal and Sen kings. In its contrast, it was also believed that this is probably the "Naga style" that Tibetan historian Lama Taranath had mentioned.

Watch the full video on Pal Art-

Saturday, 27 April 2019

Elements of Art-कला तत्व

कला तत्व

  1. रेखा (Line)
  2. रूप (Form)
  3. वर्ण या रंग (Colour)
  4. तान (Tone)
  5. पोत (Texture)
  6. अंतराल (Space)
1.      रेखा (Line)
      रेखा दो बिन्दुओं या सीमाओं के बीच की दुरी है जो बहुत सूक्ष्म होती है और गति की दिशा को निर्देशित करती है |
      कला में रेखा प्रतीकात्मक रूप में होती है जो किसी आकार या रूप की अभिव्यक्ति, शक्ति या प्रवाह का रेखांकन होती है |
2.      रूप (Form)
      रूप वह वर्ण या स्थान है जिसका अपना निश्चित अकार तथा रंग होता है |
      साधारनतया वास्तु (Object) की आकृति को रूप कहते हैं |
      रूप या आकृति की रचना रेखा के साथ-साथ रंग से भी होती है |
3.      वर्ण या रंग (Colour)
      वर्ण प्रकाश का गुण है, ना कि वस्तु का | इसका कोई स्वतंत्र अस्तित्व नही होता बल्कि अक्षपटल द्वरा मस्तिष्क पर पड़ने वाला एक प्रभाव है |
तान (Tone)
      रंगों के हल्के या गेहरेपन को तान कहते हैं |
      ये हमें किसी भी रंग में सफ़ेद या कला रंग मिलाने से प्राप्त है |
      रंगों में सफ़ेद व काले रंग की मात्रा के अंतर से उनके तान विभिन्न रूपों में प्राप्त कीये जा सकते हैं
      इसके तीन मुख्य भाग छाया (Dark Tone), मध्य तान (Half Tone) व प्रकश  (Light) हैं |

पोत (Texture)
      किसी भी वास्तु के धरातलीय गुण को पोत कहते हैं |
      पोत चित्रांकन का महत्वपूर्ण अंग है और इसको पाने के लिए चित्रण शैली, तकनीक और विधि का सहयोग लिया जाता है |

अंतराल (Space)
      अन्तराल का मतलब चित्र में खली जगह से है
      ये चित्र के मुख्य विषय या वस्तु के आस पास, या उसके अंदर हो सकता है |
      ये नकारात्मक या सकारात्मक हो सकता है |
      ये सकरा हो सकता है और गहरा भी और 2D भी हो सकता है और 3D भी |
      कभी-कभी ये नही भी हो सकता है मगर उसका भ्रम जरुर होगा |

Thursday, 25 April 2019

Principles Of Indian Art

Principles Of Indian Art

Principles Of Indian Art भारतीय चित्रकला के षडंग (सिद्धांत)

वात्स्यायन का कामसूत्र ई. पू. ६००-२०० की रचना है इसका टीका ११वीं शती में जयपुर निवासी यशोधर पंडित ने किया जिसमें प्राचीन चले आते हुए सिद्धांतों पर आधारित चित्रकला के छः अंगों का उल्लेख एक श्लोक में किया गया है:
रुप्भेदः, प्रमाणानि, भाव, लावण्य योज्नाम् |
साद्रश्य, वर्णिका भंग, इति चित्र षडंगकम् ||

अर्थात रूप भेद, प्रमाण, भाव, लावण्य योजना, सद्रश्य तथा वर्णिका-भंग – ये चित्र के छः अंग या सिद्धांत हैं |
रूपभेद: रूपभेद का अर्थ हम विभिन्न प्रकार के रूपों से लगते हैं | रूपों का रहस्य और भेद, जीवित और म्रत्, विभिन्न कोणों वाला, गोल, अंडाकार अनेक प्रकार के रंगों वाला, कठोर, मुलायम, खुरदुरा चिकना आदि | महाभारत के शांति पर्व में १६ प्रकार के रूप कहे गए हैं | पर ये तो रूप के बाहरी (भौतिक) भेद हैं रूप के रहस्यमय भेद भी हैं जिसमे कुशल्तापना आचार्य का काम है | जैसे- केवल फटे कपड़ो से ये नही देखाया जा सकता के यह स्त्री दासी है किसी गरीब की प्रियतमा नही है | विष्णुधर्मोत्तर पुराण में चित्र के चार भेद गिनाये गए हैं:
१.       सत्य,           ३. वेणिक,
२.       नागर,         ४. मिश्र |
प्रमाणन: प्रमाणन में अंगों की उपयुक्त अनुपात के द्वारा शारीर रचना बतायी गयी है | भारतीय चित्राचार्यो ने पाँच प्रकार के रूप का उल्लेख किया है और उनके प्रमाण भी दिए है जो इस प्रकार हैं:
बाल :         पाँच ताल, जैसे – गोपाल
कुमार:         आठ ताल, जैसे – वामन
मानव:         दस ताल, जैसे – अर्जुन, पांडव, राम, कृष्ण
भयानक:       बारह ताल, जैसे – भैरव, हयग्रीव, बाराह
राक्षस:         सोलह ताल, जैसे – रावण, कुम्कर्ण
यहाँ ताल शब्द का प्रयोग एक इकाई हेतु आया है | इसके अतिरिक्त अंगुल प्रमाण भी मन जाता है | यह तो प्रमाण की साधारण सी बात हुयी | परन्तु इसका प्रोयोग कलाकार पर निर्भर करता है | चित्रकला को नियमों में बंधना सही नही है | कलाकार को अपनी प्रमा-शक्ति (Rational Power) से भी इसे बार बार नापना चाहिए |
भाव: चित्र रचना का महत्वपूर्ण उद्देश्य भावाभिव्यक्ति या रसानुभूति है | ये दोनों बातें मूलतः एक ही हैं | चित या मन में किसी भी प्रकार का विकार होना भाव कहलाता है | चित्र की आत्मा (भाव) के संम्बध में दो अधार हैं:-
Ø  चित्रकार के भाव जिनको वह चित्र में दिखता है
Ø  दर्शक के ह्रदय में उत्पन्न होने वाले वे भाव जो चित्र के अवलोकन से होते हैं.
भावो को हम नेत्रों के माध्यम से तो चित्राकृति में दिखा सकतें हैं परन्तु कुछ भावों का संबंध केवल नेत्रों तथा मुख से नही होता | इन भावों को दिखने के लिए अनुभव की आवश्यकता होती है | भाव को व्याप्त करने के लिए अन्य युक्तियों का सहारा लेने पड़ता है |
लावण्या योजना: चित्र में भाव के साथ-साथ लावण्य भी होना चाहिए | प्रमाणन जिस प्रकार रूप को ठीक दिशा देता है उसी प्रकार लावण्या उसे उत्कर्ष प्रदान करता है |  भाव आंतरिक सोंदर्य का बोधक है और लावण्या बाहरी सोंदर्य का प्रतीक है | कभी कभी जो कमी रह जाती है उसे लावण्या से पूरा किया जा सकता है | इसका प्रयोग ऐसा ही है जैसा आटे में नामक का |
साद्रश्य: आकृतियों की अनुरूपता को साद्रश्य कहा जाता है | भारतीये चित्रकला में साद्रश्य को प्रमुख वास्तु मन गया है:
“ चित्रे साद्रश्य-करणंम् प्रधानं प्रिकीर्तीतम ”   - चित्रसूत्र
भारतीये कला में मानवीय अंगों का सद्रश्य उन अंगों के गुणों के अनुसार प्राकृतिक उपमानों में खोजा गया है:-
नेत्र : कमाल पत्र, कमाल कलि, मृग नेत्र, पक्षी, परवल की फांक या मछली के समान |
कान : गिद्द के पंख के समान
नाक : तिल के फूल या तोते जैसी
नथुने : सेम के बीज के समान
होंठ : कमाल या सेम के फूल के समान
भोहें : नीम की पत्तियों या धनुष के समान
हाथ की उँगलियाँ : सेम की फली या चंपा कली के जैसी
पुरुष की कमर : सिंह जैसी
स्त्री की कमर : डमरू जैसी
जंघाएँ : हाथी के सूंड जैसी
वर्णिका भंग (रंग संयोजन): वर्ण रंग को कहते हैं और वर्णिका भंग का मतलब रंगों के संयोजन से है| इस सिद्दांत के अंतर्गत ये बताने का प्रयास किया गया है के चित्र में कहाँ कहाँ कोण सा रंग तुलिका (ब्रश) द्वारा भरा जाना है| बिना रंगों में महारथ हासिल किये उपर बताये गए पाँच अंगों का कोई मतलब नही है| अतः चित्रकार को वर्निकभंग का पूरा पूरा ध्यान रखना चाहिए| विचार के साथ साथ तुलिका आगे बढती है| इसलिए तुलिका को वश में करना मुख्या बात है|
तो इस प्रकार यहाँ भारतीये चित्रकला के छः सिद्दांतो को संछेप में बताने का प्रयास किया गया है. कला प्रेमियों को चाहिए के वो इन को जाने एवं चित्र बनाते समय इनका ध्यान रखे| ये कोई निश्चित नियम नही हैं और न हीं इनको पालन करना अनिवार्य है परन्तु एक मार्ग दर्शन हेतु ये एक महत्वपूर्ण हैं| कलाकार को सतत प्रयास एवं अभ्यास निरंतर करते रहना चाहिए|
मुईन अख्तर
टी.जी.टी. कला शिक्षा

Tuesday, 23 April 2019

Perspective in Art

Perspective in Art

Perspective in Art
I uploaded a video (Link was given below) on Perspective in Art. If anyone who wishes to know about Perspective, he can watch this video on Perspective. Learn about Perspective, Three dimensional  and two-dimensional art, 2D and 3D Art,  Perspective in Art,  Perspective Drawing, Perspective Drawing,  Perspective Art, Aerial Perspective, Use of Perspective, Point Perspective & how to draw perspective.
(Click the link above to watch full video)
 It’s a very useful video for all art lovers, fine artist, art students, landscapers and students of the architect. It’s also very informative and useful for all competitive examination of Art. In this article, I am trying to introduce and to brief you about this video.

What is Perspective?

Every object that we see has three dimensions: length, breadth, and depth. However, the picture which we are to paint or draw has only length and breadth. So the technique to carry the illusion of depth (that is, the third dimension) on a 2 dimension paper is called perspective. In other words, to create a 3D effect on the 2D surface is called perspective.

About this Video

Perspective the video covered almost everything about it. This video will tell you everything about Perspective and also its uses in Arts. This video has all about perspective-definition, Viewpoint, Vanishing points, etc. You will find details information of perspective in visual arts or in fine arts in the following ways:
The answer of the above question is in the video.

Meaning and Classification

You will find Perspective- The technique to convert 3D on the 2D surface, Meaning of Perspective. It will tell you that perspective has three-point perspectives:
Point perspective-
1-Point perspective,
2- Point perspective,
3-Point perspective,

You will find the kinds of perspective such as Color perspective, Aerial perspective, Circular perspective, & Linear perspective. All useful term with their explanation and illustration have been put at a place for the viewers. These terminologies must be known by all artist.
You can also clarify the meaning of some useful technical term of perspective like – Horizon line, Eye-level, Vanishing point, Picture plane & Picture cone.
This is a very useful topic for NET Visual art, PGT, RPSC TGT Art education examination for KVS, JNV, DSSB, RPSC TGT, UP TGT & UP PGT competitive examination. These are also useful videos for above-said examinations:

Must watch: Elements of design (कला तत्व)
Hindi Version-
English Version-

Visit my channel and find more videos like this and others on various topics related to arts and education. 
Thanks for visiting my blog now I request you to watch out videos on various Art techniques like Watercolor, Oil Color, Acrylic color as well as sketching, drawing with pencil and another medium like a pen, brushes, and charcoal. We will also discuss and share information on Visual arts, Fine arts, Art History, Contemporary Artists, Classic arts Modern arts, Art Organizations, and Education.
So be with us & subscribe to my channel, follow me on my blog to encourage me to bring out useful information and knowledge of visual arts theoretically as well as practically. Your suggestion, views, queries, doubts, and questions are most welcomed here in my comments box.
Thanks for watching.

Sunday, 21 April 2019

Learm Elements of Arts-Fundamental of Plastic Arts

Lear Elements of Arts-Fundamental of Plastic Arts

Hello friends,
Lear Elements of Arts-Fundamental of Plastic Arts with the video that we have brought for you. It will explain the brief intro of every element of plastic arts. Its very useful for those who are preparing for TGT, PGT and UGC Net in visual arts. So must watch this video: